In the mid 17th century Austen suggested clay mixed with horse dung for use after cutting out cankers on Apple trees.
Compartmentalization is considered to be a major factor in tree survival and their resilience has resulted in trees achieving some notable milestones; being the oldest non-clonal organisms on the planet (Bristlecone Pine – P.
longaeva the oldest of which is around 4789 years) and producing some of the largest organisms on earth (General Sherman a Giant Redwood – , having a calculated timber volume of 1486.6m3).
Since the rise of the earliest-known trees, around 400 million years ago during the Middle Devonian, trees have evolved to occupy a wide range of terrestrial environmental niches.
Trees are complex organisms with a highly evolved sense and respond system.